2017 Guest Speaker Schedule

Updated: 02/10/2017
All Presentations are Scheduled to Coincide with General Meeting Dates
2017 Scheduled Upcoming Presentations:

1/06/17 – We had a guest speaker for the Friday January 6th meeting.   Steve Wilson, W6SDY, presented on Direction Finding Methodologies and eccentric uses for AM broadcast receivers.

2/03/17 – Dr. Uhrhammer, WA6VEX, presented on earthquake early warning. He was research seismologist with the UCB Seismology Lab and is now retired after 30 years with the Working Group for California Earthquake Probabilities and the California Integrated Seismic Network. He updated us on earthquake prediction and preparedness.

3/03/17 – Bill Buzzbee will present on homebuilt 16-bit computer and rebuilding a teletype. PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming to the pre-meeting dinner.

4/07/17 – Our own Rob Rowlands, NZ6J, will present Software Defined Radio (SDR). PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming to the pre-meeting dinner.

5/05/17 – Leighton Hills will present on West Marin WISP. PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming to the pre-meeting dinner.

6/02/17 – To be Announced. We have a tentative speaker (NOT YET CONFRIMED). Michelle Paquette is scheduled to present on Antenna Basic Principals. PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming to the pre-meeting dinner.

7/07/17 – To be Announced. No Scheduled Speaker. PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming to the pre-meeting dinner.

8/04/17 – Our own Alan Bowker, WA6DNR, will present on current operating availilities for working ham radio satellites. PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming to the pre-meeting dinner.

9/01/17 – To be Announced. PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming to the pre-meeting dinner.

10/06/17 – To be Announced. PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming to the pre-meeting dinner.

11/03/17 – To be Announced. PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming to the pre-meeting dinner.

December TBD 2017 Our annual Holiday Party will be our December General Membership Meeting.  No presentation in December. We charge a fee to attend our Holiday Party, which includes dinner and door prizes.  Paid members and guests are welcome. PLEASE RSVP to rsvp@w6sg.net if you are coming.

Posted in Club Events, Education, Uncategorized

How to Use Your Radio Class Scheduled

Will be on Feb 25 at the public service thank you meeting, there will a break out session for new operators and any one interested . 11:00 AM.
RSVP to Kris Backenstose, KK6AYC

Posted in Club Events, Education, Uncategorized

Public Service Thank-You Lunch 2/25/17

The thank-you lunch for 2016 public service volunteers and an orientation for returning public service volunteers has been set for Saturday, February 25 at 11:00 AM at the clubhouse at 27 Shell Road in Mill Valley.

Flier: PS-February-17

Reserve your space at: RSVP@W6SG.NET.

Posted in Club Events, Public Service, Uncategorized

Next Monthly Meeting Date

Updated: 02/10/2017
The next regular monthly meeting of the Marin Amateur Radio Society will be Friday, March 03, 2017, and will be held at the Alto Clubhouse. We have a guest speaker for the meeting.   Steve Wilson, W6SDY, who will be exploring Direction Finding Methodologies and eccentric uses for AM broadcast receivers. Please RSVP if you want attend the pre-meeting dinner. Members and guests are welcomed. Please RSVP to: rsvp@w6sg.net/ if you plan to attend the pre-meeting dinner, so we have enough food. (Meetings are normally held on the first Friday 7:30 PM, monthly; except July and December.) See: Guest Speaker for more information.

The next Board of Directors meeting is scheduled for Thursday, March 09, 2017, 7:30PM, at the Alto Clubhouse.  Members and guests are welcomed.  (Normally held the second Thursday 7:30 PM, monthly.)

There is an informal get together at the Alto Clubhouse, weekly on most Sunday mornings; 08:30 – 11:30ish.  If there is a holiday that falls on Sunday, no one opens up the clubhouse.  The CW practice group and the repair group meet Sundays at the Clubhouse around 10:00am.

The HF Sunday Morning Net is scheduled at 09:00 am, the VHF Sunday Morning Net is scheduled at 10:15 am. See: Nets for more information.

There is a Technician Class starting on Date TBD, 2017.   More details at: MARS Education Page

(Directions to the ClubhouseMARS Alto Clubhouse

Posted in Club Events

Our New Website is Here!

If you are seeing this, it means our new website is live!  Take a look around.  Is there something missing?  Is something not working quite right?  Use the new contact form to send us feedback.  This is a work in progress, so be patient, but let us know what you think.

Posted in Club Events, Uncategorized

Next Exam Date: March 05, 2017

Interested in getting your license, or upgrading your current license?  Exams will be administered at the MARS clubhouse on Sunday, March 05, 2017 at 14:00 (2 PM).  (sorry, exams only, no instruction).  Click here for more information.
Updated: 12/29/16

Posted in Club Events, Regulatory

California Mobile Cellular Statute Revision AB.1785

From ARRL:

California has revised its State statutes addressing mobile wireless
operation. This was done without any advance notice to ARRL
Headquarters from radio amateurs in California. This new statute has
raised serious concerns since its passage by the State legislature and
enactment by the Governor of California for one principal reason: There
was included in the prior mobile cellular statute in California a
complete exemption for licensed Amateur Radio operators, which was not
included in this new legislation. The new legislation completely
replaces the earlier legislation. The new legislation reads as follows:

(a) A person shall not drive a motor vehicle while holding and
operating a handheld wireless telephone or an electronic wireless
communications device unless the wireless telephone or electronic
wireless communications device is specifically designed and configured
to allow voice-operated and hands-free operation, and it is used in
that manner while driving.
(b)  This section shall not apply to manufacturer-installed systems
that are embedded in the vehicle.
(c)  A handheld wireless telephone or electronic wireless
communications device may be operated in a manner requiring the use of
the driver’s hand while the driver is operating the vehicle only if
both of the following conditions are satisfied:
(1)  The handheld wireless telephone or electronic wireless
communications device is mounted on a vehicle’s windshield in the
same manner a portable Global Positioning System (GPS) is mounted
pursuant to paragraph (12) of subdivision (b) of Section 26708 or is
mounted on or affixed to a vehicle’s dashboard or center console in a
manner that does not hinder the driver’s view of the road.
(2)  The driver’s hand is used to activate or deactivate a feature
or function of the handheld wireless telephone or wireless
communications device with the motion of a single swipe or tap of the
driver’s finger.
(d)  A violation of this section is an infraction punishable by a base
fine of twenty dollars ($20) for a first offense and fifty dollars
($50) for each subsequent offense.

Here is the definition of an electronic wireless communications device
in the Bill:

(f)  For the purposes of this section, “electronic wireless
communications device” includes, but is not limited to, a broadband
personal communication device, a specialized mobile radio device, a
handheld device or laptop computer with mobile data access, a pager, or
a two-way messaging device.

While AB 1785 does eliminate the mobile exemption for Amateur Radio
from the prior statute, there is no indication in this definition of
any intention to preclude either two-way private land mobile voice
communications or Amateur Radio communications. The specific reference
to SMRs and pagers is exclusionary rather than inclusive. They are CMRS
facilities, as are broadband PCS devices and two-way messaging devices.
It would be impossible to include Amateur portable transceivers in the
category of “electronic wireless communications device” as defined
in the Statute unless those were actually being used for mobile data
access while the control operator was driving a motor vehicle. Of
course, the principal use of Amateur portable transceivers is for
two-way voice communications.

The legislative record on this Statute indicates that it was intended
to apply to non-voice, non-text services now available on “smart
phones” (such as streaming video), which the former law did not
prohibit explicitly. However, due to some rather poor draftsmanship in
the text of the legislation defining what constitutes an “electronic
wireless communications device,” it is impossible to determine the
universe of such devices that are included in the definition. This is
because the definition above includes the words “but not limited
to” in giving examples of electronic devices that cannot be operated
while also operating a motor vehicle in California.

Furthermore, the foregoing analysis is very technical. ARRL is
concerned that law enforcement officers might interpret the new
statutory language in the Vehicle Code more broadly than we believe was
intended.  Law enforcement officers are not necessarily skilled enough
in telecommunications technology to be able to make the fine
distinctions that radio amateurs are capable of, and they should not be
expected to do so, where the legislative intent is not clearly

While there is a risk that licensed Amateur Radio operators in
California using portable transceivers in their cars while driving may
be subject to sanctions from police officers, the intent of the
legislation clearly is to address handheld phones and mobile data and
not private land mobile, dispatch radios, or mobile radios for voice
communications with handheld mics.

The definitions in state mobile cellular and mobile texting laws do
make a difference. There are two ways to protect Amateur Radio in the
drafting of those statutes: one is by sufficiently narrowly defining
prohibited activity so as to exclude Amateur Radio. The other is to
create specific exemptions where the definitions are confusing. This
statute is an example of poor legislative draftsmanship. It creates a
motor vehicle law with citations issued for certain activity that
includes the words “but is not limited to” in the language defining the
violation. However, what is included does not proscribe use of mobile
Amateur Radio equipment for voice communications.

There are several ways to respond to this. Perhaps the most difficult
is to obtain a legislative amendment that either restores the Amateur
Radio exemption from the prior legislation. Obtaining curative
legislation so soon after enactment of a state statute is not
politically the most simple of tasks, and State legislatures are not in
session for long periods each year. That fix could take some time.
Another option is to attempt to obtain a favorable exclusionary
interpretation of the new Statute from the California Attorney
General’s office, which we understand has already been attempted
unsuccessfully by some California radio Amateurs, though the effort
could be renewed). Finally, if there is an instance of a radio amateur
being cited for violating the statute, a successful defense of that
citation could be used as a precedent for precluding subsequent
instances of application of the Statute to licensed radio Amateurs.

ARRL monitors state legislation in two ways; one is via a legislative
monitoring service that responds to key word searches and which did
identify this legislation, which when originally introduced was not in
the form ultimately enacted. The second is through ARRL’s section
level State Government Liaisons who monitor state and local
legislation. However, these efforts are not foolproof; mobile cellular
legislation is often introduced and passed on very short notice, and
State legislative sessions are very short. Proposed legislation during
those sessions change often. In this case, some retroactive advocacy is
called for, but the legislation is not as disruptive of mobile Amateur
Radio operation as the current level of concern would indicate. Nor are
the sanctions particularly severe for first or even subsequent offenses.
ARRL expects to pursue a fix for this through its advocacy efforts.

Posted in Regulatory, Uncategorized

Several CubeSats with Amateur Radio Payloads Deployed from ISS

From ARRL:

ARLS003 Several CubeSats with Amateur Radio Payloads Deployed from

Several CubeSats carrying Amateur Radio payloads were placed into
orbit on January 16 from the International Space Station (ISS). Six
CubeSats delivered to the ISS in December were deployed from the
Kibo airlock using the new JEM Small Satellite Orbital Deployer
(J-SSOD).  Information on J-SSOD can be found on the web at, http://iss.jaxa.jp/en/kiboexp/jssod/

Satellites carrying Amateur Radio payloads included ITF-2,
Waseda-Sat-3, AOBA-Velox-3, and TuPOD (including Tancredo-1).
University of Tsukuba designed and built ITF-2, with a downlink of
437.525 MHz. Waseda-Sat-3, a project of Waseda University, downlinks
CW and FM telemetry on 437.29 MHz. AOBA-Velox-3 downlinks GMSK
telemetry on 437.225 MHz. Tancredo-1, a Brazil middle school
project, will transmit AFSK on 437.200 MHz.

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has posted a video on
the launches and related activities.  Further information can be
found on the JAXA website at, http://global.jaxa.jp/ .

Posted in Operating Events, Uncategorized

New “Amateur Radio Parity Act” Bill Introduced in US House of Representatives

From ARRL:

ARLB005 New “Amateur Radio Parity Act” Bill Introduced in US House
of Representatives

H.R. 555 – a new “Amateur Radio Parity Act” bill – has been
introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives. The bill’s language
is identical to that of the 2015 measure, H.R. 1301, which passed in
the House late last summer but failed in the waning days of the US
Senate to gain the necessary support. As with H.R. 1301, the new
measure introduced on January 13 in the 115th Congress was sponsored
by Rep. Adam Kinzinger (R-IL), with initial co-sponsorship by Rep.
Joe Courtney (D-CT) and Rep. Greg Walden, W7EQI (R-OR). Walden now
chairs the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, to which the new
bill has been referred. H.R. 555 will get an initial airing in the
Subcommittee on Communications and Technology. When H.R. 1301 came
up in committee, Walden spoke forcefully in favor of the measure,
which ultimately attracted 126 House cosponsors.

Information on H.R. 555 can be found on the web at, https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/555?r=27 .

“Rep. Kinzinger has again stepped forward to introduce this
important legislation,” said ARRL CEO Tom Gallagher, NY2RF.
“Kinzinger’s commitment stems from exposure to what the Amateur
Radio community brings to the service of all communities. The ARRL
and radio amateurs nationwide owe Rep. Kinzinger a resounding ‘Thank
You!’ for his efforts on their behalf.”

H.R. 555 calls on the FCC to establish rules prohibiting the
application of deed restrictions that preclude Amateur Radio
communications on their face or as applied. Deed restrictions would
have to impose the minimum practicable restriction on Amateur Radio
communications to accomplish the lawful purposes of homeowners
association seeking to enforce the restriction.

The ARRL Board of Directors is expected to discuss the pending
legislation when it meets January 20-21.

Posted in Regulatory, Uncategorized

Marin / Redxa Field Day Site

The Marin ARS / Redwood Empire DX Association (REDXA) Field Day will return to last year’s site, Monkey Ranch south of Petaluma.
More details later.

Posted in Club Events, Operating Events, Uncategorized

AMSAT reports that the launch date for RadFxSat (Fox-1B) has been moved to August

From ARRL:

ARLS002 RadFxSat (Fox-1B) Launch Moved to Late August

AMSAT reports that the launch date for RadFxSat (Fox-1B) has been
moved to August 29, 2017. RadFxSat is one of four CubeSats making up
the NASA ELaNa XIV mission, riding as secondary payloads aboard the
Joint Polar Satellite System JPSS-1 mission.

Information on ElaNa can be found on the web at, https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/smallsats/elana/index.html

RadFxSat features the Fox-1 style Amateur Radio FM U/V repeater,
with an uplink on 435.250 MHz (67.0 Hz CTCSS) and a downlink on
145.960 MHz. Satellite and experiment telemetry will be downlinked
via the “DUV” subaudible telemetry stream and can be decoded with
the FoxTelem software.

JPSS-1 will launch on a Delta II from Vandenberg Air Force Base,
California. RadFxSat is a partnership with Vanderbilt University
ISDE and hosts four payloads for the study of radiation effects on
commercial off-the-shelf components.

RadFxSat construction and testing was completed in the fourth
quarter of 2016, and the CubeSat is currently in clean storage at
Fox Labs, awaiting delivery and integration, now scheduled for June.

Posted in Operating Events, Uncategorized

ARLB004 ARRL Asks FCC to Allocate New 5 MHz Band

From ARRL:

ARLB004 ARRL Asks FCC to Allocate New 5 MHz Band, Retain Channels
and Current Power Limit

ARRL has asked the FCC to allocate a new, secondary contiguous band
at 5 MHz to the Amateur Service, while also retaining four of the
current five 60-meter channels and current operating rules,
including the 100 W PEP effective radiated power (ERP) limit. The
federal government is the primary user of the 5 MHz spectrum. The
proposed action would implement a portion of the Final Acts of World
Radiocommunication Conference 2015 (WRC-15) that provided for a
secondary international allocation of 5,351.5 to 5,366.5 kHz to the
Amateur Service; that band includes 5,358.5 KHz, one of the existing
5 MHz channels in the US.

“Such implementation will allow radio amateurs engaged in emergency
and disaster relief communications, and especially those between the
United States and the Caribbean basin, to more reliably, more
flexibly and more capably conduct those communications [and
preparedness exercises], before the next hurricane season in the
summer of 2017,” ARRL said in a January 12 Petition for Rule Making.
The FCC has not yet acted to implement other portions of the WRC-15
Final Acts.

The Petition for Rule Making can be found on the web in PDF format
at, http://www.arrl.org/attachments/view/News/87580 .

The League said that 14 years of Amateur Radio experience using the
five discrete 5-MHz channels have shown that hams can get along well
with primary users at 5 MHz, while complying with the regulations
established for their use. “Neither ARRL, nor, apparently, NTIA is
aware of a single reported instance of interference to a federal
user by a radio amateur operating at 5 MHz to date,” ARRL said in
its petition. NTIA – the National Telecommunications and Information
Administration, which regulates federal spectrum – initially
proposed the five channels for Amateur Radio use. In recent years,
Amateur Radio has cooperated with federal users such as FEMA in
conducting communication interoperability exercises.

“While the Amateur Radio community is grateful to the Commission and
to NTIA for the accommodation over the past 14 years of some access
to the 5-MHz band, the five channels are, simply stated, completely
inadequate to accommodate the emergency preparedness needs of the
Amateur Service in this HF frequency range,” ARRL said, adding that
the five 2.8-kHz wide channels “have not provided sufficient
capacity to enable competent emergency preparedness and disaster
relief capability.”

Access even to the tiny 15-kHz wide band adopted at WRC-15 would
“radically improve the current, very limited capacity of the Amateur
Service in the United States to address emergencies and disaster
relief,” ARRL said. “This is most notably true in the Caribbean
Basin, but the same effect will be realized elsewhere as well, at
all times of the day and night, and at all times of the sunspot

In its Petition, ARRL also called upon the FCC to retain the same
service rules now governing the five channels for the new band. The
WRC-15 Final Acts stipulated a power limit of 15 W effective
isotropic radiated power (EIRP), which the League said “completely
defeats the entire premise for the allocation in the first place.”

“For precisely the same reasons that the Commission consented to a
power increase on the five channels as recently as 2011 [from 50 W
PEP ERP to 100 W PEP ERP], the Commission should permit a power
level of 100 W PEP ERP, assuming use of a 0 dBd gain antenna, in the
contiguous 60-meter band,” ARRL said. “To impose the power limit
adopted at WRC-15 for the contiguous band would render the band
unsuitable for emergency and public service communications.”

ARRL pointed out that the ITU Radio Regulations permit assignments
that are at variance with the International Table of Allocations,
provided a non-interference condition is attached, limiting the use
of such an assignment relative to stations operating in accordance
with the Table.

The League asked that General class or higher licensees be permitted
to use the band. The FCC will not invite comments on the League’s
Petition until it puts it on public notice and assigns a Rule Making
(RM) number.

Posted in Regulatory, Uncategorized

ARLB003 Illegal Drone Transmitters Could Interfere with Air Traffic Control, ARRL Complaint Asserts

From ARRL:

ARRL Bulletin 3  ARLB003
From ARRL Headquarters
Newington CT  January 12, 2017
To all radio amateurs

ARLB003 Illegal Drone Transmitters Could Interfere with Air Traffic
Control, ARRL Complaint Asserts

In what it calls an “extremely urgent complaint” to the FCC, ARRL
has targeted the interference potential of a series of audio/video
transmitters used on unmanned aircraft and marketed as Amateur Radio
equipment. In a January 10 letter to the FCC Spectrum Enforcement
Division, ARRL General Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD, said the
transmitters use frequencies intended for navigational aids, air
traffic control radar, air route surveillance radars, and global
positioning systems.

“This is, in ARRL’s view, a potentially very serious interference
problem, and it is respectfully requested that the products
referenced…be investigated and removed from the marketplace
immediately and that the importers be subjected to normal
sanctions,” ARRL’s letter said. Some of the transmitters operate on
frequencies between 1010 and 1280 MHz. “These video transmitters are
being marketed ostensibly as Amateur Radio equipment,” the League
said, “but of the listed frequencies on which the devices operate,
only one, 1280 MHz, would be within the Amateur Radio allocation at
1240-1300 MHz.” Even then, ARRL said, operation there would conflict
with a channel used for radio location.

ARRL said the use of 1040 and 1080 MHz, which would directly
conflict with air traffic control transponder frequencies,
represented the greatest threat to the safety of flight. The use of
1010 MHz, employed for aeronautical guidance, could also be

ARRL cited the Lawmate transmitter and companion 6 W amplifier as
examples of problematic devices being marketed in the US. Each costs
less than $100 via the Internet. The device carries no FCC
identification number.

“[T]he target market for these devices is the drone hobbyist, not
licensed radio amateurs. The device, due to the channel
configuration, has no valid Amateur Radio application,” ARRL told
the FCC. “While these transmitters are marked as appropriate for
amateur use, they cannot be used legally for Amateur Radio
communications.” In the hands of unlicensed individuals, the
transmitters could also cause interference to Amateur Radio
communication in the 1.2 GHz band, ARRL contended.

The League said it’s obvious that the devices at issue lack proper
FCC equipment authorization under FCC Part 15 rules, which require
such low-power intentional radiators to be certified.

“Of most concern is the capability of the devices to cripple the
operation of the [air traffic control] secondary target/transponder
systems,” ARRL said. “These illegal transmitters represent a
significant hazard to public safety in general and the safety of
flight specifically.”

The surge in sales of drones has been dramatic. The FAA has
predicted that combined commercial and hobby sales will increase
from 2.5 million in 2016 to 7 million by 2020.

In Exhibit A of the January 10 letter, “Illegal Drones Threaten
Public Safety,” the League noted that some of the drones and
associated equipment it has come across “are blatantly illegal at
multiple levels,” with some drone TV transmitters described as
“particularly alarming.”

“Rated at 6 times over the legal power limit, and on critical air
navigation transponder frequencies, these devices represent a real
and dangerous threat to the safety of flight, especially when
operated from a drone platform that can be hundreds of feet in the
air,” the exhibit narrative asserted.

Posted in Regulatory, Uncategorized

FCC Dimisses Two Petitions

From ARRL:
ARLB002 FCC Dismisses Two Petitions from Radio Amateurs

The FCC has turned down two petitions filed in 2016, each seeking
similar changes in the Part 97 Amateur Service rules. James Edwin
Whedbee, N0ECN, of Gladstone, Missouri, had asked the Commission to
amend the rules to reduce the number of Amateur Radio operator
classes to Technician, General, and Amateur Extra by merging
remaining Novice class licensees into the Technician class and all
Advanced class licensees into the Amateur Extra class. In a somewhat
related petition, Jeffrey H. Siegell, WB2YRL, of Burke, Virginia,
had requested that the FCC grant Advanced class license holders
Morse code operating privileges equivalent to those enjoyed by
Amateur Extra class licensees.

“Thus, Mr. Siegell’s proposed rule change is subsumed within the
changes Mr. Whedbee requests, so our analysis is the same for both
proposals,” the FCC said in dismissing the two petitions on January

The FCC streamlined the Amateur Radio licensing system into three
classes – Technician, General, and Amateur Extra – in 1999. While it
no longer issues new Novice or Advanced class licenses, existing
licenses can be renewed, and Novice and Advanced licensees retained
their operating privileges.

“The Commission concluded that the three-class structure would
streamline the licensing process, while still providing an incentive
for licensees to advance their communication and technical skills,”
the FCC recounted in its dismissal letter to Whedbee and Siegell. It
specifically rejected suggestions that Novice and Advanced class
licensees be automatically upgraded to a higher class, concluding
that it would be inappropriate for these licensees to “receive
additional privileges without passing the required examination
elements.” The FCC cited the same reason in 2005, when it denied
requests to automatically upgrade Technician licensees to General
class and Advanced licensees to Amateur Extra class, as part of a
wide-ranging proceeding.

The FCC said the two petitions “do not demonstrate, or even suggest,
that any relevant circumstances have changed that would merit
reconsideration of those decisions.”

Whedbee had argued that automatically upgrading current Novice and
Advanced classes would simplify the rules and reduce the
Commission’s costs and administrative burden, but the FCC said
Whedbee provided no evidence that an administrative problem exists.
“Moreover, such benefits would not outweigh the public interest in
ensuring that amateur operators have the requisite incentive to
advance their skill and technical knowledge in order to contribute
to the advancement of the radio art and improvement of the Amateur
Radio Service,” the FCC said.

“The Commission has already concluded that it will not automatically
grant additional privileges to the discontinued license classes,”
the FCC said. “Consequently, we conclude that the above-referenced
petitions for rulemaking do not warrant further consideration at
this time.”

Posted in Regulatory, Uncategorized